A Historical Perspective
Jackson Murder Case
Who were they ?
MilesStones of the History
A Historical Perspective
has a personality of
its own, due to its mythological, historical, social and cultural
importance. The city is situated on the banks of the Godavari
River, making it one of the holiest places for Hindus all over the
world. Nashik has a rich historical past, as the mythology has it
that Lord Rama, the King of Ayodhya, made Nashik his adobe during
his 14 years in exile. At the same place Lord Laxman, by the wish
of Lord Rama, cut the nose of "Shurpnakha
and thus this city was named as "Nasik
Nashik was 'Trikantak', 'Janasthana' in
Dwaparyuga and later in Kuliyuga it became 'Navashikh'
or 'Nashik'. Renowed poets like
Valmiki, Kalidas and Bhavabhooti have paid rich tributes here.
Nashik in 150 BC.was beleived to be the country's largets market
place. From 1487 A.D, this province came under the rule of Mughals
and was known as 'Gulchanabad'.
It was also home of emperor Akbar and he has written at lenght about
Nashik in 'Ein-e-Akbari'. It was
also known as the 'Land of the brave' during the regime of
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.
No one knows when the city of Nashik came into existence. It is
stated to have been present even in the stone age. Lord Ramchandra
along with wife Sita and brother Laxman settled down in Nashik
for the major time of their "Vanwasa". According to
the mythology, Laxman cut the nose ("Nasika" in Sanskrita)
of "Shurpanakha" and hence the city got the name 'Nashik'.
Long ago, Brahmadeva had meditated in "Padmasana" here,
so the city was also called "Padma-Aasana" for some
time. It is also believed that, Lord Vishnu had defeated the three
demons and thus city also had the name "Tri-Kantak"
(Tri = Three).
During Peshwa's period
In the recent past, the Moguls were fascinated by the beauty of
the city and renamed it as "Gulshanabad" meaning the
city of gardens. Beautiful fresh flowers were sent to Aurangazeb
from Gulshanabad i.e. Nashik. But it was during the rule of the
Peshwas, when the place was finally renamed as Nashik. During
the Peshwas period, Raghobadada and his wife Anandibai settled
down at 'Anandwalli' in Nashik. There re some remains of Anandibai's
fort. There is also a temple called 'Navasha Ganapati' built by
Anandibai. It was during the British rule in April 1818, when
Nashik once again regained its importance. The British fell in
love with the beauty of the city and developed it in various fields.
The Golf course, developed by the British, was one of the largest
in Asia. Nashik is surrounded by nine hills, namely: Durga, Ganesh,
Chitraghanta, Pandav, DingerAli, Mhasarul, Jogwada, Pathanpura
and Konkani. This beautiful city with hills surrounding it has
lakes, adding to its beauty.
Rise & Growth Of National
In 1869 the region came to enjoy unbroken peace. In 1869 Nashik
was made a full-fledged district with its present talukas. With
the return of peace Nashik flourished into prosperity. Reasons,
political, religious, as well as commercial led to its rapid development.
With the construction of the railway, going from Bombay to north-east,
from very near the city, religious minded devotees came to be
attracted to The town in ever increasing numbers where they made
their purchases of various artistic & useful articles. This
made Nashik a great trade centre where artisans skilled in manufacturing
utensils & smiths excelling in workmanship in silver &
gold crowded to ply their trade. Already Nashik was a highly flourishing
town even under later Maratha rule & some time during that
period the sow car families like barves, Vaishampayans & Gadres
of the locality started their financial activity. Under Maratha
rule they advanced sums to finance military campaigns of feudal
Sardars & in their later times their Pedhi's gradually began
to finance the flourishing trade in metalware & fabrics as
well as grapes & onions. By the middle of 19th century the
British Rule was firmly established & the public life of Nashik
began to pulsating with activities suited to the times. In 1840
was established a ' Native Library Nashik' . In 1861 an Anglo-vernacular
school was started & 1864, The town came to have a municipality
of its own.
During these days there lived in Nashik a saintly person, known
as Dev Mamaledar. His name was Yeshvant Mahadev Bhosekar. He began
his career as an humble clerk in the revenue department &
gradually rose to the position of Mamaledar. He always had a feeling
for the poor & the suffering. During the period of his service
as a Mamlatdar in Baglan Taluka which has its head quarter at
Satana , A severe famine affected the area & Bhosekar generously
helped the people to alleviate their sufferings. He always led
a virtuous life & spent his spare moments in devout religious
practices. In course of time he became so famous that princes
& people began to respect him as a saint & called him
Yeshvantrav Maharaj. Upon his death in 1887 people raised a small
beautiful temple for his Samadhi on the bank of the river where
his last funeral rites were performed. The paved floor around
came to be known as Yeshvant Patangana which has now become a
great centre of public assemblage & activity.
Nashik's struggle for freedom
21st December 1909. Anant Kanhere shot the collector Jackson in
Vijayanand theater. The murder of Jackson challenged the British
Rule. The people involved in the incidence, Anant LaxmanKanhere,
Krishnaji Gopal Karve and Vinayak Ramchandra Deshpande were sentenced
to death. It wasduring this time that 'Abhinav Bharat ' was formed.
The young Nashikites were influenced by the speech of Lokmanya Tilak
given on the 26th of August 1906. Veer Savarkar successfully organised
underground movement against the rulers.
The revolutionary activities at Nashik however continued. Although
elaborately planned & very cautiously carried out they came
to be suddenly interrupted on account of the hot-headed, intemperate
& hasty on the part of a group of young men from Aurangabad,
who involved some of the weaker members of the Mitra-Mela in their
plan. Of these hot-headed persons one Anant Kanhere came to Nashik
& on the night of 21st December 1909 suddenly fired at Mr. Jackson,
the collector of Nashik when the latter had gone to see a drama
'Sharada' stagd by Kirlosker Natak Mandali in the local Vijayanand
theater. The collector died on the spot. This set a whole chain
of government inquiry into vigorous activity, the result of which
was that all those connected with underground activities in the
name of Mitra-Mela, including Savarkar, who at that time had been
in India came to be arrested, tried & sentenced to severe punishments.
The embers of revolution flared , in those days, into Marathi songs
full of patriotic fervour written by various writers, prominent
among whom was G.T. Darekar popularly called 'Govind Kavi' whose
poems such as 'Who could ever win freedom without fight ?' or
addressing his prayer to God Rama & saying 'When, O Rama, wilt
thou be pleased to satisfy our burning desire for freedom,
If Italy be free, why not India ?
If Ireland be free, why not India ?
If America be free, why not India ?'
The tempo in singing such songs in congregation used to enliven
the audience & strengthen their determination to face the struggle.
Subsequently government banned all such songs & suppressed all
undrground activities with a heavy hand. The government had become
very sensitive & even an utterance here or there or a display
of an objectionable picture led to extreme government action. A
few examples would suffice. Shri Khare, a pleader in Nashik , was
accused to havesaid the following a few days before the murder of
Mr.Jackson : "Today 4 crores of people rule over 33 crores
& they have destroyed Indian industries ." . "It is
the businessof the white to ruin us black people". "europeans
are like the demon ghost Putana, who was fair outside but poisonous
within". " The time for action has come. How many of you
ae ready to go to jail or to die?" & the like. Shri Khare
was asked to submit a personal bond failing which the High Court
recommended that his sanad should be suspended till such time that
the order to furnish security continues in force Another interesting
case was that of Shridhar Waman Nagarkar of Nashik who was sentenced
to three years' rigorous imprisonment for drawing & publishing
a picture containing a mythological representation of the slaying
of demon Mahish by the Goddess Durga, framed with portrails of certain
persons, notorious for sedition. The government took the view that
the picture is likely to excite disaffection towards His Majesty
or the government established by law in British India. Similar was
the case against Devising Mohansing & Shankar Gir Hanumantgir
of Nashik for publishing a seditious picture under the title "Rashtra
Purusha". The former was sentenced to three years' rigorous
imprisonment. Given below are the details of Jackson murder case
that resulted in the subsequent unrest & discontent:-
Jackson Murder Case
Story of The Nashik Conspiracy
The evidence in this case establishes that prior to the year 1906
, an association of young men , mostly Brahmans, existed in Nashik
under leadership of Ganesh & Vinayak Savarkar which was known
as the Mitra-Mela. In it were reproduced the features of other
similar associations in the Deccan to which reference has already
been made. Exciting songs were prepared for the Ganapati &
Shivaji festivals & the members of the Mitra-Mela used to
join in singing these songs either in procession or in the precincts
of some temple or other place of assembly.
Physical instruction was given to members by one of the witnesses
in this case & by a Mahomedan brought for the purpose from
Baroda. The activities of the association did not, however, cease
there, for we have evidence, which we accept as true, that meetings
were held at the house of Ganesh Savarkar & of Aba Darekar,
one of the song-writers of the association, at which the biographies
of patriotic revolutionists were read & re-read, the particular
favourites being Mazzini, Shivaji & Ramdas & where discusssions
were carried on with regard to the means for attaining independence
for India. At these meetings the methods advocated were the education
of public by means of lectures, books & songs, & the preparation
for rising against the British Government by collection of arms
We have examples of inflammatory speeches delivered by Vinayak
& Narayan Savarkar & by Mahadev Bhat, & a photograph
of number of members of the Mitra Mela, several of whom are among
the accused, grouped round Vinayak Savarkar in which four or five
pictures of Shivaji, A board bearing the words "Bande Mataram"
& a book bearing the name of Mazzini on the outer cover are
prominently displayed, which corroborate the general description
of the aims & methods of the association given by the witnesses.
The photograph Exhibit A-271, to which referance has been made,
marks an important stage in the history of the association . Its
occasion was the impending departure of Vinayak Savarkar for England
in the middle of June 1906, a step which he was enabled to take
owing to his being the recipent of a scholarship given by Shamji
Krishna Varma, the founder of the India House at Highgate. Up
to the time of his departure Vinayak Savarkar had been one of
the most active & probably the most stimulating of the members
of the Mitra Mela. In the early part of 1906 speeches were delivered
by him in Poona & in nashik the object of which was to arouse
the country & to suggest how by means of mental training &
physical exercises, preparation might be made for successful revolt.
Jackson Murder Case
The following persons were arrested in connection with the murder
of Mr. Jackson, Collector of Nashik, on the night of the 21st
|Anant Laxman Kanhere
||21st December 1909
||21st December 1909.
|Krishna Gopal Karve
||24th December 1909
||6th January 1910.
|Vinayak Narayan Deshpande
||23rd December 1909
||6th January 1910.
| Shankar Ramchandra Soman
||23rd December 1909
||6th January 1910.
|.Waman Daji Narayan Joshi
||30th December 1909
||4th January 1910.
|Ganesh B. Vaidya
||22nd December 1909
||2nd january 1910.
|Dattatraya Pandurang Joshi
||22nd December 1909
||5th January 1910.
Before the departure of Vinayak Savarkar
the Mitra Mela
had developed into or given birth to the Abhinav Bharat or Young
India Society a title which the prosecution suggests was borrowed
from the "Young Italy" of Muzzini. Its objects were
The aim of its members was to be prepared for war. The list of
objects enumerated in Exhibit 9B found in the possession of Kashikar
in 1909 affords ample corroboration of the evidence of witnesses
upon this point.
Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
matriculation in 1901, he took admission in Fergusson College
He was however more interested in India's freedom from British
rule. The young college students in Poona were charged by the
speeches by the patriots and political leaders like Bal Gangadhar
Tilak, Bhopatkar etc. The news papers in Poona were also actively
participating in creating anti-British atmosphere in the society
and appealing society’s feelings of Nationalism.
Savarkar was the uncrowned leader of the youth in this movement.
In 1905 he burnt the imported clothes as a token of India’s protest
to imported clothes. In May 1904, he established an International
Revolution Institute named "Abhinav Bharat". His instigating
patriotic speeches and activities irritated the British Government.
As a result his B.A. degree was withdrawn by the Government. In
June 1906 he left for London to become Barrister. However, once
in London, he united and inflamed the Indian students in
England against British. He believed in use of arms against
the foreign rulers and created a network of
Indians in England, equipped with weapons . Although he
passed Barrister Examination in England, because of his anti-government
activities, he was denied the Degree.
He was the prime inspiration for the Indian
students to rise against British rule. The British Government
Officers were waiting for some opportunity to arrest him. He was
arrested in London on 13 March 1910 on some fabricated
offenses. The case against him was to be heard by the court
in India. So he was to be sent to India. During his travel in
a ship, as the ship neared Marseilles in France, he jumped
through a porthole and swam to the port. This was on 8 July 1910.
As per the plan, his colleagues were to reach there beforehand.
However, they reached late and he was caught
by French Police. The French Government denied him asylum.
After the case was decided in India,
he was sentenced to 50 years rigorous life imprisonment
in Andaman on 24 December 1910. Since 4 July 1911,
he was in Andaman Jail in solitude. On 2nd May 1921 he was
brought to India from Andaman. Since 1921 to 1922, he was in Alipur
(Bengal) and Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) Jails. On 6th January
1924, he was released from the jail on two conditions viz. a)
He will not actively participate in politics and b) he will stay
in Ratnagiri District. He was in house arrest at Ratnagiri. Thereafter
he spent his life in different fields of social work.
He breathed his last at the age of 83, on
Saturday, February 26, 1966. "Prayopveshana" , meaning fast till
death, was what he observed and refused any intake
of food. His death was like a true warrior. Death did not
grab him, he approached death with erect head.
The books of verse composed by members of the socitey known as
the "Laghu Abhinav Bharat Mala" were printed & published
in Bombay & Sholapur & were for a long time openly sold
though of a most inflammatory character. The publisher of four
of the earlier issues of the above series departure for England
in 1906 & an edition of 5,000 copies was published in September
of that year.
Ganesh Savarkar Sentenced
This series of publications culminated in 1908 with the issue
by Ganesh Savarkar of Fiowers 8 & 9 containing a clear incitement
to war against the British. They resulted in the arrest of Ganesh
Savarkar on the 28th February 1909 & his subsequent conviction
& transportation but not before he had made arrangements for
the reception in Bombay of a consignment of Browning pistols which
were originally destined for Nashik.
The supreme sacrifice of Anant Kanhere
, Krishnaji Karve
& Vinayak Deshpande
is a glorious chapter in the history
The begining of 20th century witnessed increase in atrocities
by Britishers on the innocent Indians . Lokmanya Tilak was put
behind the bars for 6 years . Babarao alias Ganesh Damodar Savarkar
was sentenced to life imprisonment for publishing the patriotic
songs of his younger brother Vinayak Savarkar . Jackson , the
then collector of Nashik , was responsible for prosecution of
Babarao Savarkar . He tortured Waman Sakharam Khare , a well-known
lawyer , so much that Khare lost his mental balance . The only
'offence ' of Khare was : he pleaded for revolutionaries.
All these incidences evoked a sharp reaction in the patriotic
youths of Nashik . The last straw came when a British officer
beat a farmer to death for not allowing his vehicle to overtake
. When the situation was heating up to the boiling point , Jackson
was transferred on promotion outside Nashik .
Kanhere & his friends made up their minds : It's now or never
A farewell ceremony was arranged for Jackson in the Vijayanand
A famous Marathi drama Sharada was
staged to mark the occasion . Anant Kanhere & his friends
were all set to execute their plan . Anant grabed the opportunity
& fired at Jackson. As per the plan , Anant tried to commit
suicide but he failed to do so . He used one of the 20 revolvers
which were sent by Veer Savarkar from England . The historical
day was : December 21 , 1909.
It was planned that only Anant should take entire responsibility
of the assassination so that other conspirators would remain in
dark . But it did not happen . The Police arrested Krushnaji
Gopal Karve , Vinayak Narayan Deshpande , Shankarrao Soman
, Wamanrao Joshi & Ganu Vaidya . All these youths were
detained in the Sarkarwada & were treated brutally to know
more about the conspiracy . The torturing Police team was headed
by Alikhan who was reputed for his inhuman behavior. The prosecution
of these brave youths is well-known in the history of India as
'Nashik Conspiracy Case' .
1814 - 1859
Ramachandra Pandurang popularly called, as Tatya Tope was an
able leader of the great uprising of 1857. He was a personal
adherent of Nana Saheb of Kanpur. He progressed with the
Gwalior contingent after the British reoccupation of Kanpur
and forced General Windham to retreat from Kanpur. Later on,
he came to the rescue of Rani Laxmi Bai. However he was
defeated by General Napier's troops and was executed by the
British Government at Shivpuri on 18th April 1859.
One of the greatest heroes of the Great uprising of 1857,
Tatya Tope was born in 1814 at Yevla
in Nashik District of Maharashtra State. He was the only child of Pandurang
and his wife Rukhmabai. Having brought up in Bithoor, he came
into contact with Nana Saheb Peshwa. He was a great admirer of
Nana Saheb, who was ready to sacrifice his life for him. Tatya
Tope was the only person who witnessed the rebellion since the
Kanpur revolt till his own end on 18th April 1859.
Tatya Tope was the Commander - in - chief of the rebel army of
Shivarajpur. He defended Kanpur gallantly and captured Kalpi.
His able leadership led to the victory of Indian forces at
Kanpur. He won a number of battles against the British. His
guerilla tactics frightened the British Generals.
The British army was directed in searching him while he was
wandering in jungles. Tatya kept himself busy in organizing
the forces during this period. He along with Rani Laxmi Bai
seized Gwalior, but later he was defeated by Sir Collin
Campbell. The British army surrounded him from all sides. He
managed to escape and fled to the jungle. For a couple of
months, he was wandering in jungles facing unimaginable
difficulties and hardships.
During this critical juncture of his life, a traitor informed
the British about the place, where he hid. The British army
captured him on 7
April 1859 and was trailed in the court. He admitted boldly
"What he did, was for his own mother land and he has no
regrets". He was hanged and ultimately the First War of Indian
Independence came to an end.
The great uprising of 1857 was a remarkable event under the
commanding guidance of Tatya Tope. He was a man of an adored
and most admired personality who had courage, zeal and
foresight. His timely help to Rani Laxmi Bai some how created
a hope but the luck was in favour of the British which led to
With Tatya's death on 18th April 1859 the sun of the great
uprising was set forever.
Anant Laxman Kanhere
Born in 1891. Elder brother Ganpatrao, younger brother Shankarrao.
Two sisters . started life at Indore . Went to Aurangabad to
his uncle Barve in 1903 for further study. His brother Ganpatrao
at Barsi. Anant stayed with this brither for some time. In 1908
he returned to Aurangabad & stayed in a hired room in one
Gangaram Rupchand Shroff's house. Gangaram had a friend at Yevla
named Tonpe . He was a member of the secret of Nashik. One Ganu
Vaidya of Nashik used to visit Yevla to meet his relative. Ganu
became acquainted with Gangaram at Yevla. He went with Gangaram
to aurangabad to purchase cheap weapons for the Nashik Secret
Socitey. Anant became acquainted with this Vaidya at Aurangabad.
Krishnaji Gopal Karve
Karve was a scholar of Hindu philosophy . He had a great faith
in the idea of reincarnation . He , therefore , used to say
, " If I die early , I will be reborn early & can start
fighting with the Britishers again ." Karve told the court
that even if it appeared that he was not responsible for the
assassination , in fact , responsibility lay on his shoulders.
He was a B.A(Hons.) & was studying law at Mumbai. He was
then 23 years old . He was the moving spirit of one of the secret
organizations in Maharashtra. He initiated Shankar Ramchandra
Soman in the secret organization. He knew the preparation of
bombs & taught the process to Soman & Chandratre. He
purchased seven Browning pistols , one revolver, & one country-made
pistol from one Gopalrao Patankar, who had received the parcel
of Browning pistols sent by V.D Savarkar through his cook Chaturbhuj.
This was in May or June 1909.
Vinayak Narayan Deshpande
He was 21 years old . He was a member of the secret organization.
He was the First Assist ant teacher in the Panchvati school
at Nashik. He was married. He conducted a handloom as an additional
vocation. On the third floor of the building where this handloom
was working there was an old darkroom, where Deshpande &
others of the secret meetings. Deshpande had collected some
explosives, which were kept in a box.
He was a student aged 18 years.
Waman Daji Narayan Joshi
He was 20 years old. He was a teacher in the Panchvati school.
He was the person who collected & stored explosives &
weapons for the secret society. It was to him that Anant expressed
his willingness to do something by way of retalition against
the barbarous conviction of Savarkar.
Dattatraya Pandurang Joshi
He was a student at Aurangabad & a friend of Anant
In the court , Anant Kanhere defended himself without any lawer.
During the prosecution , he was calm & quiet . He was so
much stable-both physically & mentally- that , according
to the official records , he put on 15 pounds of weight during
this period !
On 7th March 1910 all the accused were presented before court.
They included Anant Kanhere , Krishnaji Karve , Vinayak Deshpande
,Shankarrao Soman , Wamanrao Joshi , Ganu Vaidya & Dattu
Joshi. Hundreds of citizens had gathered outside the court to
have a 'Darshan' of these courageous youths. Justice Mr. Hiton
was so much impressed by Anant's personality that he remarked
" I am very sorry that I have to sentence him to death
It was on 20th March , 1910 that the court declared the verdict
. Kanhere , Karve & Deshpande were to be hanged. Shankarrao
Soman , Wamanrao Joshi & Ganu Vaidya were given life imprisonment
. However , later on , Ganu Vaidya was treated accomplished.
Soman & Wamanrao Jashi were to be taken to Andaman -
Kala Pani . But Soman (fortunately ? ) passed away before
sending to Andaman . Wamanrao Joshi had to undergo the agony
of the cellular jail in Andaman.
Kanhere , Karve & Deshpande were hanged to death
on 19th April 1910 . Krishnaji Karve was the only son of his
parents . His supreme sacrifice brought an end to his clan.
At cellular jail of Andaman we find there a list of 300 prisoners
who were kept in the jail . The list includes three Maharashtrians
Svatantryaveer Savarkar , Babarao Savarkar & Wamanrao
It is a matter of pride for Nasikites that all of them hailed
from Nashik !
Milestones in the history of
Some of the major events in the history of Nashik are :
· 1840 : Sarvajanik Vachanalaya established. (Public Library)
· 1854 : Sharanpur Colony formed.
· 1861 : Deolali Cantonment formed.
· 1862 : Nashik Road railway station was built.
· 1864 : Nashik Municipality formed.
· 1869 : Nashik district formed.
· 1894 : Saint Andrew Church built.
· 1894 : Construction work for Victoria Bridge started.
· 1910 : Police Training School established.
· 1922 : Distillery started at Nashik Road.
· 1927 : Security Press formed at Nashik Road.
· 1941 : Artillery Center migrated to Nashik Road from
Quetta in Pakistan.